Marketing in business: definition, types.
What to know and how to use in the enterprise.

Marketing in business is about creating the conditions for market transactions by researching and understanding the needs of the market and tailoring communications, sales offers and after-sales activities to them. It is thus a process focused on guiding the customer through the entire buying cycle, from interest in an offer to repeat purchases.

marketing w firmie

Definition of marketing

The definition of marketing according to Philip Kotler, a leading expert, focuses on satisfying human needs and desires through exchange processes. Kotler defines marketing as “the social and managerial procedure by which individuals and groups satisfy their needs and desires by creating, offering and exchanging products of value to others.”

In this definition, Kotler emphasizes that marketing is a social process, involving interaction and exchange between people. It is also a management activity, involving the planning and execution of marketing activities. Central to this is a focus on consumer needs and desires, where marketing success depends on effectiveness in identifying, understanding and satisfying these needs. Creating value through products and services and maintaining a valuable sales exchange between the company and customers is the foundation of this definition. Kotler emphasizes that effective marketing contributes to building long-lasting relationships with users, which is crucial for sustained business success.

What are the types of marketing?

Marketing can be divided into two main types: traditional and the new online, digital-based marketing. Traditional focuses on one-way communication through offline media, such as television, radio, and print, with a more general message to a wide audience. Its goal is to build long-term relationships with customers by understanding and satisfying their needs, which contributes to sales and profits. New marketing, on the other hand, is a strategy that uses digital media and the Internet and is characterized by two-way communication and personalized messages. It focuses on generating leads, i.e. potential customers interested in an offer, which is its main goal and performance indicator (KPI). Both new and traditional include different methods that are tailored to the characteristics and opportunities offered by the respective communication channels.

  • Television and Radio Advertising: This is the use of television and radio platforms to reach a wide audience. These advertisements are designed to increase brand awareness and promote products or services.
  • Billboards and Outdoor Advertising: involves promotion through large, often graphic advertisements placed in public places, such as along roads or in city centers. They are used to attract the attention of large numbers of people.
  • Print Advertising: These include various types of printed materials, such as brochures, flyers, posters, catalogs, and advertisements in newspapers and magazines, which are distributed to potential buyers.
  • Telemarketing: This method involves direct telephone contact with potential customers (leads) to promote products or services. This may involve selling products or making appointments, but it also involves building awareness about the company.
  • Direct Marketing: includes a wide range of activities, especially face-to-face meetings and phone calls, but also includes, for example, mail marketing, which is a form of mailing.
  • Mailing: sending advertising materials, personalized offers, newsletters or promotional information directly to customers’ homes and offices, often in the form of letters, brochures or catalogs.
  • Events and Sponsorships: Includes organizing or sponsoring events, such as conferences, trade shows, sports or cultural events, to promote and build relationships with customers and partners.
  • Social Media Marketing: Using social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter or LinkedIn to promote offerings, engage audiences and build a community around the company.
  • Content Marketing: creating and sharing valuable, informative or entertaining content (such as articles, blogs, videos, infographics) to attract and engage audiences and build relationships with them.
  • Performance Marketing: focuses on achieving specific results, such as leads, conversions, sales, often in the context of online marketing.
  • SEO (Search Engine Optimization): Optimization of websites and their content to achieve a higher ranking in organic search engine results.
  • SEM (Search Engine Marketing): Using paid search engine advertising (e.g. Google Ads) to increase website visibility and generate traffic.
  • Email Marketing: Sending personalized emails to a targeted audience to inform, engage, promote.
  • Mobile Marketing: Marketing activities focused on users of mobile devices, including mobile apps, ads tailored for smartphones and tablets.
  • Affiliate Marketing: Involves working with individuals or companies (affiliates) who promote products or services in exchange for a commission on sales or other activities.
  • Influencer Marketing: Working with influencers on social media to promote a company’s products or services.
  • Whisper Marketing: Subtly promoting an offering through recommendations and conversations among influencers, bloggers and other influencers, often in a natural, informal context.
  • Network Marketing: network marketing, which involves using personal networks or groups on social to promote and sell products, and includes techniques for building a network of distributors and multi-level selling (MLM).
  • Real-Time Communication: a method of marketing that involves using current events or trends to create engaging content and quickly interact with audiences.
  • Viral Marketing: creating content designed to naturally become popular and widely shared by users.
  • Smart Marketing: Using advanced technology and data analysis to personalize and optimize marketing efforts.

What is marketing in business?

Marketing in business is the process of planning and executing activities to understand, attract, and retain customers by creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offers that provide value to both sides of the transaction. An important task, then, is to not only attract potential customers to make a purchase but also to build long-term relationships. This approach is crucial to growing the company and successfully positioning the brand in the market.

To achieve this, market research is used to understand consumer needs and preferences, develop products and services that meet those needs, set prices, promote offers, and manage loyalty programs after sales to maintain relationships.

marketing w przedsiębiorstwie

What is the difference between marketing and sales?

Marketing and sales are two different but closely related aspects of business that are often confused. Marketing aims to identify and understand customer needs, create demand and build awareness. Its activities, such as market research, promotion and customer relationship building, are long-term and focused on attracting and retaining customers by providing value. Sales, on the other hand, focuses on direct transactions, involving negotiation, finalizing deals, and fulfilling orders, focusing on achieving immediate sales goals.

Marketing ends where sales begin and, conversely, begins where sales end. Although the marketing department is not directly involved in transactional processes, the way they are executed affects the customer experience and satisfaction. In e-commerce, this boundary becomes more fluid, as the ease of online transactions and the user experience (UX) of the store are part of the online environment. In new marketing, the separation between sales is often marked by KPIs, such as the number of leads generated versus their conversion by sales, allowing for precise evaluation and optimization of both processes.

What role does marketing play in business management?

Marketing in business management acts as a key link between the company its customers and the market. It is responsible for identifying and satisfying the needs of the target group, which is fundamental to the development of the organization.

Its main functions are to identify market needs and design strategies that respond to these needs. The marketing department engages in market research, which allows it to understand consumer preferences and behavior. On this basis, companies can develop products and services that better meet user expectations, leading to increased sales and building loyalty. Equally important is the company’s positioning and branding, which contributes to differentiating the company from its competitors.

In addition, marketing plays a key role in building and maintaining long-term relationships with customers. Thus, it becomes an integral part of a company’s management, affecting every aspect of its business from product development to customer service.

How does marketing formulate business goals?

Marketing formulates business objectives based on the strategic directions of the organization. Goals are set based on available technologies. For example, the modern holistic approach uses SEO, SEM, content, social networks, affiliation, and influencers, but also real-time communication or viral content. In each of these areas, KPIs, or milestones, are set.

For example, if a company plans to expand overseas, marketing adjusts the goals to follow the plan to enter new markets, an SEO goal might be to increase traffic from a country by 300% in a year.

What is the marketing mix 4P in marketing strategy?

The 4P’s marketing mix in a marketing strategy formulates the goals and ways to achieve them within product, price, promotion, and distribution. Each of the elements of the marketing mix is adjusted and coordinated to support the overall goals of the company while responding to the needs and preferences of customers:

  1. Product: product decisions (design, features, quality, etc.) are directly linked to the needs and expectations of the target group. For example, if the main goal of marketing is to increase customer loyalty, the company may focus on improving product quality or introducing new features that better meet customer needs.
  2. Price: it must be consistent with the value the customer places on the product. In the context of goals such as increasing market share, a company can use competitive or promotional pricing to attract more customers.
  3. Promotion: selected promotion methods, such as SEO, SEM, social media, are tools to communicate the value of the product to customers and build awareness. For example, effective SEO and content campaigns can help increase a company’s online visibility and attract new customers.
  4. Distribution: The choice of distribution channels and sales locations is crucial in reaching an audience. Decisions about where to sell are tailored to customers’ preferences and buying behavior. For example, developing e-commerce may be a response to the growing popularity of online shopping.

What are the benefits of marketing in business?

Marketing provides the business with a number of benefits:

  • Personalization: New technologies allow products to be tailored to individual customers’ needs. Companies can more easily gather data and feedback from consumers, allowing products and services to adapt more quickly to changing preferences.
  • Innovation: Digital tools enable faster innovation, which can increase product appeal in the marketplace.
  • Pricing Flexibility: enables more dynamic and flexible price offers, for example by using algorithms to automatically adjust prices in real time.
  • Price Targeting: the ability to more accurately segment the market allows more precise pricing for different groups of consumers.
  • Greater Reach and Targeting: provides access to a wider, global audience and allows for more precise audience targeting.
  • Interactivity and Engagement: social media platforms and other digital tools enable two-way communication, increasing engagement and building long-term relationships.
  • Omnichannel and Ease of Access: enables integration of various sales channels (e.g., online store, mobile apps), improving the shopping experience of audiences.
  • Global Reach: thanks to the Internet, even smaller companies can sell their products in global markets without having a physical presence.

How to use the new Internet marketing in business?

The use of new Internet marketing in business involves the implementation of digital tools to increase visibility, engage customers, and ultimately increase sales. The key elements here are a website, search engine optimization (SEO), content building, social media, email communication and online advertising (SEM).

The first step is to create a professional website that serves as the company’s business card in the digital world. The website should be optimized for SEO to increase its visibility in search results. This includes both technical optimization and the creation of valuable content that answers the needs and questions of potential buyers. The next step is to actively use social networks to build relationships with the target audience, promote products or services, and gather feedback. Social channels also offer opportunities for advertising targeting and direct communication with audiences.

How to implement effective content marketing?

Implementing effective content marketing can be done in three main ways: using internal resources, engaging external agencies, or combining both approaches. Each of these ways has its specific advantages and requires different management approaches:

  • Using Internal Resources: This involves building and developing content expertise in-house. This approach allows full control over the content creation process, its consistency, and its fit with the organizational culture. The key here is to build a team that includes people from different departments and to invest in training and skill development. Internal management takes time and resources but can yield long-term benefits in terms of authenticity and deep understanding of market needs.
  • Engaging External Agencies: Partnering with external specialists is a solution that allows for faster implementation by benefiting from experience and expertise. Agencies can provide access to a wide range of skills, from copywriting and graphic design to SEO and data analysis. This approach is particularly useful for companies that don’t have adequate internal resources or want to complete complex projects quickly.
  • Combining Internal and External Resources: The blended approach combines the advantages of the two previous methods. The internal team can focus on content creation and management, while external experts provide expertise and executive support. This maintains consistency of message and a close relationship with users while benefiting from external expertise and innovation.

Is it worth investing in affiliate marketing?

Investing in affiliate marketing can be valuable, especially for companies looking for effective ways to increase reach and sales at relatively low upfront costs. Affiliation offers the unique opportunity to pay only for results, making it an attractive choice, especially for companies with limited marketing budgets.

The key to success in affiliation is choosing the right partners who have access to the desired user group and whose content or marketing activities are in line with the company’s values and offerings. Affiliate partners, such as bloggers, influencers or website owners, promote a company’s products or services, usually in exchange for a commission on sales or other specific activities, such as lead generation. This approach allows companies to reach new customers and markets without much financial risk.

How to use real-time marketing?

Real time marketing (RTM) can be effectively used to promote events such as trade shows or major events, using primarily social media platforms and email. This involves creating and sharing marketing content that is timely and responsive to current events, using it as an opportunity to promote a product or service.

The use of social networks as part of RTM makes it possible to provide immediate information about events, engaging audiences through interactive content such as live streaming, posts, photos and video of the event. Rapid response to current events and trending industry topics is important here. Email, on the other hand, allows for more personalized communication, enabling invitations, updates and special offers to be sent directly to a select audience.

How to integrate digital marketing channels?

Integrating digital marketing channels requires a consistent plan that combines different platforms and tools to create unified communication with customers. The first step is to establish a unified message, tone of communication, and visual consistency (e.g., logo, color palette or graphic style) that should be consistently applied across all forms of digital communication.

Next, it’s important to integrate different digital channels, such as social media, email, content, SEO, SEM and online advertising, in a way that allows them to reinforce each other. For example, content published on a company’s blog can be promoted through LinkedIn or Facebook, and email marketing campaigns can direct recipients to specially designed landing pages.

What kind of online advertising is best?

The best form of advertising on the Internet depends on the specifics of the business, audience and marketing goals. Different types of advertising offer a variety of opportunities and are tailored to different needs.

For businesses looking to quickly increase website traffic and reach customers looking for specific products or services, search engine advertising (SEM) is often the best choice. It allows paid ads to be placed in search results for high visibility. Social media advertising, on the other hand, such as Facebook, Instagram and LinkedIn, is particularly effective in building awareness and engaging specific target groups through targeted campaigns. It allows advertising content to be tailored in detail to users’ preferences and interests, which can translate into greater effectiveness. Content and SEO are more suitable for long-term building of trust and authority in the industry.

How to use SEO marketing?

Using SEO (Search Engine Optimization) for business is the process of optimizing a website and its content to improve visibility in organic search results. The main goal of SEO marketing is to increase website traffic by achieving higher search engine rankings for key phrases related to a company’s industry, products or services.

The first step in effectively using SEO is to conduct a detailed keyword analysis to identify those phrases that are most relevant and popular with potential customers. Next, technical optimization of the website is key – this includes ensuring that the site loads quickly, is responsive (works on mobile devices), has the correct URL structure and optimizes elements such as metadata (titles, page descriptions). In addition, it is important to optimize content, which means creating high-quality, valuable and unique material that answers users’ needs and questions. This content should naturally include selected keywords, while being useful and interesting to readers.

In addition to working on the site, it is also important to build domain authority by gaining quality backlinks from other credible sites, which is an important ranking factor in SEO. Regular monitoring and analysis of results, use of analytical tools, and constant updating of SEO in response to changing search engine algorithms are also key elements in the successful use of SEO in business.

How to integrate SEM and SEO in search engines?

Integrating SEM and SEO is a process that leverages the synergies between paid and organic SEO methods to increase online visibility and effectiveness.

The first step of integration uses data and analysis from SEM campaigns to understand which keywords are most effective, and then implements this information into SEO. As a result, on-page content is optimized for keywords that not only generate traffic, but also contribute to high conversions. At the same time, SEO results are analyzed to identify keywords and phrases that bring natural traffic, which can be further boosted by paid SEM efforts.

The second important aspect of integration is to ensure consistency in communication and content between SEM and SEO. This means that both paid advertising and organic search results should consistently communicate the value and unique features of the offering, as well as lead to consistent landing pages. Such consistency not only empowers the market, but also improves the user experience, which is crucial to both SEM and SEO effectiveness. With an integrated approach, companies can manage their search engine presence more effectively, optimizing both paid and organic efforts to achieve better results.

How to use viral marketing?

Using viral marketing requires creating content that is not only engaging and valuable to the audience, but also optimized for search engines and promoted through paid channels. The main goal is to create material that naturally encourages users to share and spread, which increases organic reach and brand visibility.

The first step is to create unique, engaging content that resonates with the audience’s emotions or contains elements of surprise, humor, or trivia. This content should be easy to share and adapted to formats popular on various social media platforms. At the same time, it is important that the content is optimized for SEO, containing relevant keywords and phrases to increase its visibility in organic search results.

The second step is to use SEM to promote this content in paid channels, such as search engine ads or display ads. Such promotion increases the initial reach of the content and accelerates the viral spread of the ad. It is important that the paid campaigns are well-targeted and reach the right audience, which increases the likelihood of shares and further organic spread of the content.

nowy marketing

What is social media marketing all about?

Social media marketing involves using social media platforms to promote content, products, services and build relationships with audiences. Central to this approach is the creation and publication of engaging content that is tailored to the specific characteristics and preferences of users of various platforms, such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and LinkedIn.

The process begins with the development of content, which can take many forms – from posts and graphics, to videos and stories, to articles and infographics. This content should not only be interesting and valuable to the audience, but also consistent with the brand’s identity and its message. The key here is to engage the audience through interactive elements such as questions, polls or contests that encourage comments, likes and shares. In this way, the company builds relationships with current and potential customers, increasing awareness and loyalty.

Another important aspect is content promotion. In order to reach potential customers, paid advertising campaigns on social media platforms are used to reach precisely defined target groups. Using ad targeting tools, companies can reach users with specific interests, demographics or behaviors, increasing the effectiveness of the promotion.

How to direct strategic marketing?

Strategic marketing targeting requires aligning marketing activities with the company’s stated growth objectives. The key here is to identify the main directions in which the company wants to grow, and to develop a coherent marketing plan that supports these goals.

For example, for a company seeking to expand overseas, a focus on an international approach will be key. This means adapting marketing communications to different markets, cultures and languages, as well as understanding and responding to the specific needs and expectations of audiences in different regions. For B2B companies, on the other hand, the marketing strategy should be aimed at building relationships with other companies, emphasizing the value and specificity of the offering, and tailoring communications to the specific needs of the sector.

How to implement international marketing?

Implementing international marketing begins with a thorough study and understanding of the various foreign markets a company wants to enter. The key here is to analyze local trends, consumer preferences, competition, and cultural and legal factors that can affect marketing results. Such research helps identify the specific needs and expectations of buyers in each market, which is essential to effectively adjust products, communications and sales.

The next step is to tailor the marketing strategy to each market. This includes localizing marketing messages, which not only involves translating content, but also taking into account local customs, values and cultural context. It is also important to tailor product, price and distribution areas to local conditions and expectations. It is also crucial to use the appropriate distribution and promotion channels, which may differ from country to country. Effective implementation of an international expansion plan requires flexibility, continuous monitoring of results and a willingness to adjust operations in response to changing market conditions and consumer preferences.

How to target B2B marketing?

Targeting B2B (Business-to-Business) marketing requires understanding the specific needs and decision-making processes of partners. The main goal is to deliver added value by focusing on specific benefits and solutions to problems that are relevant to companies.

At the outset, it is essential to conduct in-depth market research to understand customers’ specific needs and challenges. The focus should be on identifying key decision makers in target organizations and understanding the factors that influence their purchasing decisions. Then, marketing communications should be aligned with this knowledge, emphasizing value-added offerings such as efficiency gains, cost reductions, or quality improvements. It is important that offers are clearly communicated and targeted to decision makers, often at senior management levels.

Additionally, in B2B, building long-term relationships and trust is key. Marketing ventures should focus on personalized communications, valuable content, and participation in industry events. Digital tools such as email, content, and automation should be used to build company authority and educate the market.

Relationship and partnering marketing in B2B

In B2B, where sales processes are often longer and more complex, and buying decisions are based on building trust and long-term relationships, these forms of marketing play a key role.

  • Relational: in B2B, where transactions often involve larger investments and long-term contracts, developing and maintaining strong customer relationships can lead to repeat business, loyalty and referrals. Relationship marketing in B2B focuses on understanding user needs, providing personalized solutions and maintaining an ongoing dialogue.
  • Partnering: helps build strategic alliances and networks that can strengthen both parties. Partnerships in B2B can include joint ventures, distribution partnerships to reach potential buyers, collaboration on innovation, or joint marketing initiatives.

In either case, a relationship and partnership approach in B2B requires a deep understanding of the industry, customer needs and challenges, and the ability to tailor offerings and communications to meet those specific requirements.

Where do you start in transforming your company's marketing?

Starting a marketing transformation in a company begins with an audit of current marketing activities. This step identifies strengths, weaknesses and areas for improvement. The audit includes an analysis of marketing plans, communication channels, campaign effectiveness, use of data and analytical tools, and current market positioning relative to competitors. It is also crucial to understand customer needs and expectations, as well as changes in the industry and technology.

The next step is to identify clear marketing objectives and develop a new strategy that aligns with both current market trends and the company’s long-term goals. The plan should include an integrated approach to various marketing channels, including digital and traditional, and use modern technology and data to personalize activities and measure their effectiveness. It is critical to engage and train the team so that all employees are aware of the new challenges and can implement them effectively. Transformation requires flexibility, a willingness to experiment and constantly adjust activities in response to changing market conditions and feedback from users.

Key Takeaways

  1. Marketing is the activity to build long-term relationships by satisfying human needs and exchanging value in the market.
  2. In business, the scope of marketing includes market analysis, product development, pricing, promotion and distribution, playing a key role in increasing a company’s profitability.
  3. The goals of traditional and new digital marketing differ; the former focuses on value creation and relationship building, the latter on lead generation and online brand positioning.
  4. Modern marketing offers greater flexibility, personalization and efficiency, delivering value to customers and making the company more competitive.
  5. Transforming a company’s marketing starts with an audit of current operations and setting clear goals, with an emphasis on engaging the team in the new strategy.