International Business Strategy

International business strategy for market entry involves the selection of appropriate methods such as export, franchising, joint venture, or direct investment that are tailored to the company’s resources, the nature of the product, and the specifics of the target market. The decision on strategy should take into account both the level of commitment and the risks the company is willing to take, taking into account local legal, cultural, and economic conditions that may affect the effectiveness of the chosen entry method.

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Modes of entry into international business

Modes of entry into international business include a variety of business development methods tailored to the company’s resources, the nature of the product, and the specifics of the target market. The main strategies include:

  • Direct and indirect exports: Direct exports give the company full control over distribution, increasing potential profits but involving greater risk and the need for in-depth knowledge of local markets, including trade and cultural barriers. Indirect exports, through cooperation with third-party distributors, reduce costs and risks but limit control over the sales process.
  • Foreign subsidiaries: Establishing subsidiaries provides full control over operations in the target country, facilitates the customization of products to meet local needs, and avoids customs barriers and other trade restrictions. This strategy also enables a deeper understanding of the local market and more effective competition.
  • Joint Ventures: Working with local partners allows for risk sharing and the use of local knowledge and resources. The process of forming a JV often begins with a distribution partnership and, once successful, leads to a formal joint venture, which increases the company’s stability and position in foreign markets.
  • Licensing and Franchising: Licensing allows monetization of intellectual property by generating royalty income, which is beneficial with low investment. Franchising allows for rapid expansion with control over brand quality and consistency; however, it limits profit sharing.

Each of these strategies requires a customized approach, taking into account the specifics of the company, its resources, and its strategic goals. It is important to carefully analyze the target market and adjust entry strategies to minimize risk and maximize potential benefits.

What determines the international business strategy?

The determinants of choosing an international business strategy are varied and depend on many factors that a company must consider. Company size and resources are among the key aspects. Small and medium-sized companies, due to limited financial, human, and operational resources, often choose a less risky and less costly approach, such as indirect exporting. This allows entry with less capital commitment and lower risk but at the same time limits control over product distribution and promotion.

For larger companies with more resources, more advanced options are available, such as foreign direct investment, establishing subsidiaries, or joint ventures. These strategies allow greater control over operations and better tailor products to local needs, but involve greater risk and cost. In addition, the characteristics of the product or service matter; some products may require more direct involvement in the target market, for example, because of the need to adapt to local standards or preferences.

Other important factors include the political and economic stability of the target country, legal and regulatory barriers, and cultural differences. High levels of uncertainty or risk in the target country may prompt a company to choose less-involved forms of entry. In markets with low risk and high growth potential, companies may be more inclined to invest directly.

What are the success factors for entering international markets?

Key success factors for entering international markets:

  • Clear and Consistent Vision: Successful foreign market entry begins with clearly defined strategic goals and management commitment. This is the foundation that guides the entire international operation, ensuring consistency and purposefulness.
  • Product and Communication Alignment: Adapting products and marketing materials to meet local needs is key. This includes localizing content, adjusting product features, and targeting communications in a way that resonates with local consumers.
  • Board Support and Involvement: Active participation and support from the board of directors is essential in managing change and making strategic decisions. The board must be unanimous and committed to the international expansion process.
  • Strategic Funding and Marketing: Adequate funding is essential to implement marketing and operational plans. In addition, developing an effective marketing strategy, including SEO and SEM efforts, is critical to generating demand and building a brand presence in foreign markets.
  • Patience and Flexibility: Entering foreign markets requires time and patience, as well as the ability to adapt strategies in response to changing market conditions and customer feedback.
  • Market Research and Understanding of Cultural Differences: Thorough market research and a deep understanding of cultural, legal, and business differences are key to effective adaptation and avoidance of potential pitfalls.

What are the main challenges of entering a foreign market?

Major challenges in entering foreign markets include:

  • Cultural Differences: Understanding and adapting to local values, behaviors, language and business practices is critical to success in a foreign market. Careful cultural analysis allows companies to effectively adapt products, services and marketing strategies to meet the expectations and needs of local consumers.
  • Legal and Tax Regulations: Aligning operations with local laws and regulations, including product standards, employment practices, taxes, or environmental protection, is essential. Failure to properly manage these aspects can result in serious legal and financial consequences.
  • Financial and Operational Risks: Managing foreign exchange risk, the risk of insolvency of trading partners, and political and economic risks requires effective financial risk strategies and tools.
  • Communications and Marketing: Building a brand and gaining trust in a new market takes time, understanding local preferences, and developing effective marketing and distribution strategies that are tailored to the local context.
  • Competition: Understanding local and international competitors, their needs, strategies and market positioning is essential to successfully positioning and maximizing a company’s strengths.

Careful planning, flexibility and the ability to adapt quickly to changing market conditions are key to successfully managing these challenges.

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Where to start with international expansion?

To start an international expansion, companies must first understand local conditions and adapt their marketing and sales strategies to them. Here are the six key steps that should help you successfully enter international markets:

  1. Market research: The first and most important step is to conduct in-depth market research to understand preferences, consumer expectations, and the best channels for distribution and promotion in the target market. This research should include an analysis of market size, structure, dynamics, and consumer trends. Learning about legal, cultural, and economic barriers is also key.
  2. Alignment of Products and Services: The next step is to localize products or services, which means adapting them to the specifications and expectations of the local market. This can include changes in language, design, and technical specifications, as well as adjusting prices to local economic conditions.
  3. Marketing Strategy: Develop an effective marketing strategy, including PPC campaigns and other promotional activities that are specifically tailored to the local market. It is important that this strategy be flexible and allow for rapid adaptation to changing conditions and consumer preferences.
  4. Distribution Model: Choosing the right distribution model is critical to success. It can be direct sales, cooperation with local distributors, joint ventures, or other methods tailored to product characteristics and local buying habits.
  5. After-Sales Service and Customer Support: Providing quality after-sales service, including service and technical support in the local language, is essential to building customer trust and loyalty.
  6. Understanding and adhering to Trade Principles: Success in foreign markets often depends on understanding and adhering to local laws, ethical standards, and quality and safety standards. Local customs and traditions should always be respected, which helps build long-term relationships with partners and consumers.


Preparing for overseas expansion requires careful planning and thoughtful decision-making at every stage of the process. This allows companies to maximize their chances of success while minimizing the risks associated with international operations.

Case study:
Examples of international market entry strategies.

The case study presented here shows how two high-tech companies, each with a different set of strategies and resources, attempted to enter foreign markets with different results.

The first case study concerns a project management software provider that, despite its strong position in the domestic market, encountered difficulties in the process of entering the German market. This case highlights the importance of internal consistency, effective communication between departments, and management involvement in the change process.

The second case study describes the success of a high-tech electronics manufacturer in the B2B sector, which successfully expanded into markets such as the US, UK, Canada, Australia, Germany, Italy, Spain, and France. This success was achieved through a well-thought-out marketing strategy, effective internal communications, strong management support, and adequate financing.

By analyzing these cases, the key factors determining success or failure in the process of direct exporting to foreign markets can be identified, offering valuable insights for other companies seeking global growth.

Example 1: Failed strategy for a tech company to enter the German market

This study underscores that success in foreign markets requires adequate planning, but also commitment, readiness for change, and consistency of action at all levels of the organization.

  • Background: A high-tech company, a leader in project management software in Poland, decided to offer products to the German market in response to slowing growth in its domestic market.
  • Challenge: Despite its strong position in the Polish market, the company faced the challenge of adapting its product and marketing strategy to the German market, which required localization and intensive promotion.
  • Solution: An initial marketing plan was developed, focusing on localizing the website and software, and expanding the English version to better reach German-speaking customers.
  • Obstacles: A number of operational and strategic problems have been encountered:
    • Lack of sufficient funding for content development and promotional materials.
    • Lack of effective communication between company departments and an outside consultant.
    • Resistance of the marketing department to change and lack of consistency with the marketing plan.
    • Uneven vision and strategy on the part of management, lack of commitment to the change process.
  • Result: After a year of trying to sell products in Germany, the company failed to succeed in this market, mainly due to inconsistency in the implementation of the plan, insufficient investment, and lack of internal adaptation.
  • Conclusions: The case study shows that for successful sales to foreign markets, tech companies must:
    • Ensure sufficient funding and resources.
    • Maintain clear communication and consistency among all departments.
    • Be ready for internal changes and adaptations.
    • Have a unified vision and strategy supported by the entire board.

Example 2: An effective international business strategy of a high-tech electronics manufacturer.

This case study illustrates how strategic planning, good internal collaboration, and adequate funding and board support can contribute to a tech company’s successful and profitable entry strategy into foreign markets.

  • Background: One of the largest Polish companies producing high-tech electronics for the B2B sector, aiming to export to English-speaking markets (USA, UK, Canada, Australia) as well as Germany, Italy, Spain and France.
  • Challenge: The company was tasked with customizing its products for local markets, translating its website and product materials, and generating B2B leads using SEO and SEM.
  • Solution: The company developed and implemented a comprehensive plan to access new markets including:
    • Localization of products and content.
    • Intensive SEO and SEM efforts focused on B2B lead generation.
    • Effective communication and collaboration between marketing, sales and external consultants.
    • Strong support and commitment from management.
  • Results:
    • Sustained revenue growth of 200% per year, generating €1 million in revenue this year.
    • Effective lead generation: over 200 per month, with 20% conversion to sales.
      Increased search engine visibility by 800% in 4 years.
  • Conclusions: This case highlights several key elements necessary for a successful strategy to gain international market share:
    • Understanding and Adaptation: Adapting products and communications to the specifics of local markets.
    • Interdepartmental Cooperation: Effective communication and cooperation between marketing, sales, and external consultants.
    • Board Support: Strong board support and involvement in the process.
    • Good Funding: Ensuring sufficient financial resources for marketing and sales activities.
    • Consistency and Patience: Consistent actions and a long-term approach to gaining visibility in the foreign market.

Key Takeaways

  1. Variety of Entry Strategies: The text emphasizes that there are many strategies for entering a foreign market, including direct and indirect exports, establishing subsidiaries, joint ventures, licensing and franchising. Choosing the right strategy depends on the company’s resources, the nature of the product, and the specifics of the target market.
  2. Determinants of Strategy Selection: Strategy selection decisions are determined by many factors, including the size and resources of the company, the political and economic stability of the target country, and legal and cultural barriers. Companies must carefully analyze these factors to minimize risk and maximize the chances of success.
  3. Key Success Factors: Successful entry into foreign markets requires clearly defined strategic goals, well-tuned products and communication strategies, management support, adequate financing, patience, and flexibility to adapt to changing market conditions.
  4. Importance of Market Research: Thorough market research is essential to understanding consumer preferences and expectations in target markets. They allow products and marketing strategies to be adjusted accordingly.
  5. Challenges in Entering Foreign Markets: Companies must deal with challenges such as cultural differences, legal and tax regulations, financial and operational risks, and the need to build a brand and gain trust in a new environment.

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